Best Types of Computer Hardware1
Best Types of Computer Hardware1 is a physical part of a computer that executes within the hardware. It is unlike computer software or data that can be frequently changed, modified or erased on a computer.
Computer hardware is not frequently changed and so is stored in hardware devices such as read only memory (ROM) where it is not readily changed.
Most computer hardware is embedded and so is not visible to normal users. Below are the different types of hardware’s found in a computer.
Types of Computer Hardware 2022
Motherboard: It is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system such as a computer. A motherboard is also known as a main board, logic board or system board.
Central processing Unit: A CPU is the main component of a digital computer that interprets instructions and process data in computer programs.
Random Access Memory: A RAM allows the stored data to be accessed in any order. RAM is considered as the main memory of the computer where the working area is used for displaying and manipulating data.
Basic Input Output System: BIOS prepares the software programs to load, execute and control the computer.
Power Supply: Power Supply supplies electrical energy to an output load or group of loads.
Video Display Controller: It converts the logical representation of visual information into a signal that can be used as input for a display medium.
Computer Bus: It is used to transfer data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers.
CD-ROM drive: It contains data accessible by a computer
Floppy disk: It is a data storage device
Zip Drive: It is a medium capacity removable disk storage system.
Hard Disk: It is a non-volatile data storage system that stores data on a magnetic surface layered unto hard disk platters.
Computer Hardware guide- Get all about Computer Hardware
Physical parts of computer come under the category of computer hardware. It can be changed once in a while in comparison with computer software.
Normal users don’t see most computer hardware because it is enclosed as embedded systems. The term computer hardware is generally used for personal computers.
Internal computer hardware consists of motherboard having central processing unit and random access memory.
Random access memory provides temporary storage of data where as CPU is used for doing all type of calculations. Second major component of computer hardware is Bus that is used to make common connection between several circuits.
People can choose any type of buses as per their needs. Generally these are PCI bus, PCI-E or AGP bus, ISA bus that is outdated and UCB that is commonly used.
Computer can’t be run without power supply that is case including transformer, voltage control and fan.
Computer hardware includes storage controllers that are helpful in controlling the hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM and other drives. These can be assembled on the motherboard or expansion card directly.
Video display controller is used to generate output for the computer display. Computer bus controllers are also come under computer hardware.
These are used to connect computer to external peripheral devices like printers and scanners.
Sometimes computer hardware includes some removable media writers such as CD, CD-ROM Drive, CD Writer, DVD, DVD-ROM Drive, DVD writer, DVD-RAM Drive, Floppy disk and Zip drive.
These are not permanently fixed in the computers and whenever you want you can remove them easily.
Tape drive, Internal storage and hard disk of the computer offers different levels of data storage like tape drive offers backup or long-term storage,
Internal storage keeps the data safe inside the computer for later use while the hard disk offers medium-term storage of data. Sound card usually translates signals from the system board into analog voltage levels.
It has terminals to plug in speakers.
If you want to connect your computer to other computer or Internet you require computer networking that helps you to communicate with other computers.
Other networking hardware includes modem that is used for dial-up connection, and network card that is used for DSL/Cable Internet or connect to other computers.
Computer hardware includes internal as well as external components of a computer system. External components of computer hardware consist of some essential input/output devices such as keyboard, mouse and monitor.
Other useful computer hardware components are speakers, headset, joystick, trackball, image scanner, microphone, etc.
Buyers should purchase computer hardware from a reliable source at reasonable prices.
They can also find useful information about computer hardware on Internet. Several manufactures are currently selling their products online. Buyers can get heavy discounts by purchasing online.
Be Informed When You Purchase A Computer
When you go online or look at ads for electronics stores, you will probably be able to find a computer that will be just right for you. There are many types and styles available on the market.
You can find a computer that will take up a whole room in your house, while you can also find a computer that will fit into the palm of your hand! At a business, you will probably find a mainframe computer.
In your workplace or at home you will normally find a desktop computer. In the airport, the person sitting next to you could be working on a laptop computer or handheld computer.
So, when you find yourself looking for a computer for your own personal use, you know you will have a lot to choose from.
When looking for a home computer, nowadays called a personal computer, you will find it is made up of several parts.
There will be a box sitting on your desk, black, gray or beige in color. This is your actual computer, containing everything from the microprocessor to the memory, the storage to the input/output devices.
You can’t work with just the “computer” alone, though.
There are accessories that go along with your computer like the monitor, keyboard, mouse and speakers. Other attachments you might find are printers and digital video cameras.
If you want to buy a computer, it is good to know that there are two separate categories of computers: PCs and Macs.
– A PC is a computer modeled after components and standards created by the IBM Company. A rather high percentage of all personal computers,
shown at somewhere over 90%, are PCs. Some companies that sell PC computers are IBM, Dell, Compac, and Gateway.
– A Mac computer is a personal computer made by the Apple Company. MacIntosh was its most popular style of computer several years ago.
The new IMacs are popular with die-hard Mac fans, although not as many people today use Mac computers as used to.
A personal computer in your home can be used for many things, including word processing chores, personal and business letter writing,
financial records and planning, internet searching, photography, and many other types of functions like graphic design and publishing.
For the younger crowd, a personal computer can also be used to listen to music, watch movies or play detailed video games.
The basic elements of your personal computer that you choose, like the processor, amount of RAM, floppy or CD-Rom disk drives,
hard disk drive, sound card, speakers, monitor, modem and graphics card will be determined by what kind of computer user you plan to be.
Heavy users of complex programs will need much more “stuff” on their computer than the average computer user.
Once you’ve determined how much of everything you need, you will be able to calculate an average cost for the computer you want.
What You Should Know Before Buying A Computer
Anyone who already owns a computer has a good idea of what his or her computer needs are. However, people new to the world of computers can get lost in the multitude of choices.
Here you will find some tips to what a newcomer to computers should do and why.
1. Purchase Basic Peripherals
First your computer must include all the basic peripherals. There are four major components to most computers, these are the; mouse, keyboard, monitor and the CPU unit.
You will have to purchase a computer that includes all of these components, and then at home all you have to do is to plug the components into their designated sockets.
Many computers also come with color-coding, so that each component is easily identified and assembled into one computer.
2. Determine What The Computer Will Be Used For
Basic components as described above will be adequate for a computer intended for performing simple word-processing and spreadsheet tasks, sending email or surfing the internet.
If on the other hand the computer is used in your multimedia career, you will require the use of a digital camera, printer, tablet, digicam and a scanner. If again your career is in music, you will require a set of quality speakers and microphones.
3. Create A Budget And Stick To It
Decide how much you can afford to spend on a new computer. Remember to purchase a computer where all the basic peripherals can be included in your budget when you first start out.
4. Shop By Comparing The Various Models With Each Other
Comparison-shopping is useful when choosing a computer, e.g. you may want to go with the fastest modem and processor as well as the largest hard drive and dynamic memory that fit into your budget.
Having a computer with large spare reserves will cut the price to upgrade the computer system at a later stage.
5. Buy Brand Name Items
When purchasing a computer you want a model from a computer manufacturer with a good and long market presence and with a reputation of quality service and products.
The manufacturer must also be financially viable since computer manufacturers tend to have a very high turnover.
Only the best manufacturers make it over the long run. You want your manufacturer to be able to fulfill its servicing, warranties, trades and returns.
Brand name computers are a bit more expensive, but it is in your best interest to buy well known brands.
6. Where to Buy a Computer
Once you have determined what you require in a computer as well as what kind you want, all that is left is to decide where to buy the computer.
Computers are available from several sources such as, online stores, computer store outlets, used computer stores, auction sites and your local yard sales.
It is highly recommended to buy your computer from a physical store, where you can see the computer and ask questions before purchasing.
Buying a new computer from a physical store offers the benefits of store warranties and services as well as trades and returns.
Follow these suggestions and you will find the best computer hardware for your needs. All that remains now is to move on to the software you require for your computer.
Computer Operating Systems
Computer operating systems have evolved over the years to become one of the most integral software components of a computer system.
Without the operating system, being able to use a personal computer would be much more difficult.
The operating system allows the user to easily and more successfully navigate the computer system without having to know complicated commands and requests.
In the early days of computers, operating systems weren’t part of the overall system configuration. They came about after the super computers had already been invented.
Before operating systems, information was input into the computer with punch cards. The system wasn’t very efficient and required knowledge of punch card machines just to get the desired information from the computer.
Then some programmers had a vision. They thought it would be wonderful if everyone could use a computer without having to know about complicated programming language. They began designing the first computer operating systems, and soon found success.
Today, there are many computer operating systems both already developed as well as currently in development.
Most of these operating systems are designed solely with the user in mind. They allow computer operators to simply load programs into their computers and then navigate their system with the point of a mouse and the click of a button.
All computer operating systems have certain processes that they perform “behind the scenes” so that the user doesn’t really know that they are happening.
This is called multi-tasking and makes it much easier to use a computer without having to manage resources manually. The operating system does it for you!
Your computer operating system will manage your random access memory, your hard disk memory, the scheduling of tasks, and so much more!
It will provide a level of security to your computer so that you don’t have to worry about an outside party gaining access to any of the information on your computer.
It will also navigate the various programs that are on your computer when you want to open those programs. Just tell the operating system, and it’ll take care of the rest!
The most popular operating systems today are Microsoft Windows and Apple’s Mac OS X. The technology for most computer operating systems came from these two computer giants and other operating systems have evolved from those.
Linux and GNU are two other operating systems that are beginning to take hold in popularity, although they are mainly geared toward the mainframe and network system market.
The computer operating system brought personal computers into our homes and businesses and made it easy for anyone to use a computer. Without the computer operating system, using a computer would remain in the dark ages.
Diagnostic Computer Software And Programs
Most people do not realize that they have a problem with the operating system for a personal computer until they get an error message when the computer is turned on one day.
Before the computer system reaches this stage, the computer user might notice that the system has slowed considerably over a period of weeks and that the keyboard or other input devices work incorrectly and gibberish is written across the computer screen.
The error message could come in a numeric form that lists an error code or it could come with a blue screen showing on
the computer monitor that alerts the user to a fatal operating error that will prevent the computer operating system from loading.
A computer user might try to reboot the operating system several times with the same result. Then they might consider using a recovery disk that contains diagnostic software on it that could identify the source of the problem.
Some computer operating systems require users to access diagnostics software by repetitively hitting the F8 key on the computer keyboard.
This procedure will take the operating system into a safe mode that will allow the operator to perform several diagnostics on the computer system itself.
Some programs might now operate normally while in safe mode, but if the errors are found and repaired, the computer system should load normally on the next restart.
Using this type of diagnostic computer software will require an understanding of error codes and settings by which the computer operates. The user manual will have a complete listing of error codes and the list will also explain what they mean.
While the computer is operating in safe mode, the operating system will offer the computer operator several choices on the computer screen that will help repair the errors that are on the hard drive of the computer.
Changes should be made sparingly to the computer while it is operating in safe mode. Any numerical changes that occur to the hard drive will directly effect the way the computer system will respond when it is restarted.
Some changes will make the computer inoperable and all information on the system could be corrupted and will be unusable.
Every computer user should activate the system restore option under the system icon of the control panel when they purchase the computer.
The system restore selection will allow the diagnostic software to restore the system to an earlier time, and is especially helpful when the system stops working after new software or hardware has been installed.
The computer systems restore diagnostics software program is an important system tool that many users forget to start.
The restore settings will make recovery of materials easier if the system stops responding due to infection by computer viruses or corrupted software.
If the diagnostics software fails to repair the system, then the user is faced with reinstalling the operating system from operating disks that are provided with each new computer system.
A good rule of thumb to follow is to back up information on a daily, weekly or monthly basis to ensure that no data is lost.
There are many software programs for data recovery on the market to help recover data when the operating system diagnostics programs fail to solve the problem.
Buying a Computer
What To Do And Why
It isn’t fair, but buying a computer is just plain easier for some than it is for others. Those who’ve purchased and used a computer in the past already have an idea of what they need in a new computer.
But those who are new to the computer world could get lost in the myriad of choices available.
The short answer to “What should I buy?” is “The best.” Of course that answer is extremely subjective because “the best” to one person is certainly different to another.
Our definition of “the best” is the fastest and the biggest, but even that leaves the computer newbie confused. Here’s a quick rundown of what the computer novice should do and why.
1. Buy a computer that includes basic peripherals. Every computer can be broken down into four major components: CPU unit, monitor, keyboard, and mouse.
For the novice, it’s best to buy a computer that has all of these components included so that when it’s taken home, assembling the computer is a simple matter of plugging things in where they belong.
Save the individual purchases of these components for those who have more experience.
2. Decide what you’ll use the computer for. If you want to use your computer for cruising the web, sending email, or performing simple word-processing or spreadsheet tasks, a computer with the basic components that we just described should suffice.
If you want to use a computer to help with a career in multimedia however, you’re going to need to accessorize your system with a scanner, printer, digital camera, tablet, or digicam for example.
If you want a computer to help with a career in music, you will need a quality microphone and set of speakers.
3. Create a budget and stick to it. How much can you afford to spend on a new computer? Although the prices of computers are decreasing, they can still create a hefty expense especially if you need additional peripherals described above.
In addition, you’ll need to figure in costs for maintenance, servicing, and insuring.
4. Start comparison shopping and look for the “fastest and biggest.” By “fastest and biggest,” we mean the computer with the fastest processor, the fastest modem, the biggest memory, and the biggest hard drive capacity.
Even if you think that you’ll never need the amount of speed or space available on the market today, it’s important to have in the event that you truly do need that much in the future.
Having such a large reserve will cut down on costs when the time comes to upgrade for more than what you may settle for in a computer that offers less.
5. Stick with the better-known brands. Venturing off the beaten path with lessor-known brands is again, an adventure for those who have more experience with computers.
Although those better-known brands may be a tad bit more expensive, the computer novice will appreciate the comfort in purchasing a
computer from a business that has a long record of building quality products, and that has the funds available for fulfilling returns, trades, servicing, and warranties.
6. Select a store. Having an idea of what you want in a computer and what kind of computer that you want, your only task left is to select the place in which you want to buy it.
There are a number of places available including computer store outlets, online stores, auction sites, used computer stores, or your friendly neighborhood yard sale. For the computer novice, we recommend buying a computer from a physical store.
In a physical store, you have the opportunity to see the computer of interest in person and ask questions. New computer buyers also have access to store warranties, returns, trades, and services.
These suggestions should give the computer newbie a great start in selecting a quality computer for the first time and they apply to either Windows computers or Apple Macintosh computers.
After making these decisions and finally selecting one that fits your needs, you can then venture into the fascinating world of software – a world that is just as grand as the world of hardware!
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